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Pediatric Urology

Child Care

Posterior Urethral Valves

Posterior Urethral Valves is the problem of the urethra in a male child that blocks the urine flow. It occurs when enough urine cannot pass through the valves to leave the body which creates the problem of reverse flow of urine. This type of situation leads in harming the urethra, bladder and kidneys which needs immediate treatment from a child surgeon as it can prove out to be a very dangerous problem in the future.

Vesico-ureteral Reflux

When the urine of infants and young children flows in the wrong way then, this condition is known as Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). It is also regarded as one of the main problems that lead to damaging the kidneys as the urine that is presented in a bladder flows back to the ureter and the kidneys. This problem occurs in a child when the flap valve doesn't work in a proper manner. As ureters have one-way valve system and if it doesn't function then that will lead in the backward flowing of the urine.


Hypospadias is a birth defect or congenital condition in which the meatus isn't in the top of the penis. During this defect, the opening of the urethra lies on the underside of the penis. Hypospadias isn't a dangerous defect which can harm a child. However, if treatment for it is applied then most of the male can have normal urination and reproduction. Hypospadias occurs when there is the malfunction of the hormones that cause the urethra to develop abnormally.

Choledochal Cysts

Choledochal Cysts are the cystic dilatations of bile ducts which is a very rare condition seen in a child. Choledochal Cysts are classified into 5 types based on the enlargement of the bile duct and if it is not treated on time then this may lead to cholangitis and pancreatitis. An operation known as cystenterostomy use to be performed at past to deal with this issue but now it's being treated with hepaticojejunostomy in a Roux-en-Y.


It is a condition which causes the intestinal obstruction or blockage as one segment of intestine 'telescopes' inside another intestine. The formation of telescope will block the food from passing through which create some serious problem. It is a critical condition which is most commonly seen in the children younger than three. With the help of the X-ray procedure, the intestines of a child can be pushed back into its real position which is the best medical procedure to deal with intussusception.

Germs in Children

There are four types of germs which are the main cause of several child health diseases and they are bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. These are the four germs which cannot be seen through the naked eyes and then causes serious issues to the health of little innocent ones. These germs enter into the body of a child and then multiply into many making the kids sick. The main symptoms of the child affected by germs are diarrhea, vomiting, sneezing, coughing, high fever, rashes etc.