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Meningomyelocele which is most commonly known as open spina bifida is a birth defect during which a spinal canal and the backbone doesn’t close before the baby is born. Meningomyelocele is also known as Neural Tube Defects and it occurs in two types, open and closed. A baby with this problem is born with the exposed spinal cord and it is a very serious issue because the spinal cord is not developed properly at that stage which can also affect the brain of a child.


The condition during which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) builds in the fluid containing ventricles of the brain is called Hydrocephalus. This problem can occur at any stage mainly to the child, some are born with this defect and some faces this issue later in childhood. CSF is the main thing that accumulates everything for this problem as it creates pressures on the tissues of the brain attached with the skull. Increase in the size of the head and bulging on the top of the head is the main symptoms of Hydrocephalus.


This is a very rare type of birth disorder found in premature babies before birth. During the third and the fourth weeks of a mother’s pregnancy, the neural tube connects the brain with the spinal cord. Encephalocele is a sac-like projection from the brain and the membrane that covers it through an opening in the skull. This opening can take place anywhere between the back of the neck through the centre of the skull upto the nose.